Decimal Notation in HTML

Typographic Symbols

Punctuation Marks

Character   Notes Notation Render
obelos Dotted ⸓
Saltillo Latin Capital Letter Ꞌ
apostrophe Typewriter apostrophe ' '
apostrophe-like Modifier letter - a glyph, not punctuation ʼ ʼ
apostrophe-like Prime - single prime ′
apostrophe-like Represented by right single quotes ’
Caret ‸
Asterisk * *
Asterisks Two Aligned Vertically ⁑
Asterisk Low ⁎
Asterism ⁂
Flower Punctuation Mark ⁕
Reference Mark ※
Dotted Cross ⁜
ditto To be used in CJK languages   ѩ ѩ
ditto-like Represented by closing double quotes –
ditto-like Represented by double acute accents ˝ ˝
comma , ,
full stop . .
One Dot Leader &8228;
Modifier Letter Colon &42889;
Two Dot Punctuation &8282;
Tricolon &8285;
Vertical Four Dots &8286;
Two Dot Leader &8229;
Three Dot Punctuation &8278;
Two Dots Over One Dot Punctuation &11818;
Squared Four Dot Punctuation &11820;
One Dot Over Two Dots Punctuation &11819;
Five Dot Mark &11821;
Four Dot Mark &8283;
Four Dot Punctuation &8280;
Five Dot Punctuation &8281;
Semicolon Reversed &8271;
Z Notation Type Colon &10626;
colon : :
semicolon &#59; ;
question ? ?
question inverted  ¿ ¿
question double ⁇
question reversed ⸮
question exclamation ⁈
exclamation question ⁉
exclamation ! !
exclamation inverted  ¡ ¡
exclamation double ‼
interrobang ‽
interrobang Inverted ⸘
character tie ⁀
paragraph / pilcrow ¶
section § §

The Comma in Technical Writing

The comma is used to separate thousands in numbers of four or more digits:
There were 88,000 data points.

In some foreign languages the comma indicates the decimal point.
To avoid confusion in technical writing use a thin space   to replace the comma.
There were 88 000 data points.


Character   Notes Notation Render
a1 left parenthesis ( (
a1 right parenthesis ) )
a2 left parenthesis double ⦅
a2 right parenthesis double ⦆
a3left bold ⟨
a3right bold ⟩
a5left Medium Parenthesis Ornament ❨
a5right Medium Parenthesis Ornament ❩
a6left Medium Flattened Parenthesis Ornament ❪
a6right Medium Flattened Parenthesis Ornament ❫
a7 top Top Parenthesis ⏜
a8 bottom Bottom Parenthesis ⏝
a7 top Top Curly Bracket ⏞
a8 bottom Bottom Curly Bracket ⏟
aangle bracket Medium Left-Pointing Ornament ❬
aangle bracket Medium Right-Pointing Ornament ❭
aangle quotation BoldLeft-Pointing Ornament ❮
aangle quotation Bold Right-Pointing Ornament ❯
aangle bracket Bold Left-Pointing Ornament ❰
aangle bracket Bold Right-Pointing Ornament ❱
b1curly bracket Left { {
b1curly bracket Right } }
b2curly bracket Upper Left or Lower Right ⎰
b2curly bracket Upper Right or Lower Left ⎱
b3 curly bracket Medium Left Bracket Ornament ❴
b3 curly bracket Medium Right Bracket Ornament ❵
b4 u bracket Left Sideways U Bracket ⸦
b4 u bracket Right Sideways U Bracket ⸧
cchevron left-pointing ‹
cchevron right-pointing ›
cleft Left 〈
cright right 〉
cguillemot Left-Pointing Double « «
cguillemot Right-Pointing Double » »
cguillemot Left Double Large 《
cguillemot Right Double Large 》
t0greater than > >
t1less than &#60; <
z00 square bracket Left &#91; [
z00 square bracket right &#93; ]
z01 left bracket Left Square Bracket With Quill &#8261;
z01 right bracket Right Square Bracket With Quill &#8262;
z1 left bracket Tortoise Shell Ornament &#10098;
z1 right bracket Tortoise Shell Ornament &#10099;
z2 left bracket Bold Tortoise Shell Bracket &#10647;
z2 right bracket Bold Tortoise Shell Ornament &#10648;


The hyphen you can insert with the key next to the zero on your keyboard is an ambiguous character suffering from an identity crisis.

It can't decide if it's a hyphen &#45;, a minus &#8722;, an em dash &#8212; or an en dash &#8211;.

The Unicode specification describes the key as a hyphen-minus and defines very specific replacements for its use.
Use it to insert a hyphen, but never for a minus or a dash, since it does not have the correct width for either, or the vertical position for the latter.

Neither an em dash nor an en dash should be confused with the hyphen, which has the following functions.

  1. To join compound words together.
  2. To connect compound words
  3. To connect the syllables of words broken at the ends of lines
  4. To connect prefixes and suffixes to words

The modern trend is away from hyphenation. Permanent compounds tend to become solid, and temporary compounds tend to be hyphenated only when necessary to avoid ambiguity.
The tendency is to eliminate the hyphen after a prefix, however hyphens are always required with the following prefixes: half-, quarter-, quasi-, self-, ex-, all-

Character   Notes Notation Render
hyphen &#45; -
hyphen character &#8208;
non-breaking &#8209;
soft hyphen &#173; a­b
hyphen point &#8231;
hyphen bullet &#8259;
z1 double oblique &#11799;
z1 Hyphen With Diaeresis &#11802;
  1. The non-breaking hyphen &#8209; does just what its name implies.
  2. The soft hyphen &#173; also known as a discretionary hyphen is used for one purpose only — to indicate where a word may be broken at the end of a line.
    Otherwise, it is to remain invisible and not affect the appearance of the word.
  3. The hyphen character &#8208; is meant to be used in place of the hyphen-minus when a hyphen is exactly the desired character.
  4. The hyphen point &#8231; is that bullet-like character you find in some dictionaries to separate syllables. That is its only use, but if you’re creating an online dictionary, using it will make your entries look more professional.
  5. The hyphen bullet &#8259; is a version of the hyphen character &#8208;

Hyphens are Not Dashes

Character Notation Render
hyphen &#45; -
hyphen &#8210;
en dash &#8211;
em dash &#8212;
hyphen &#8208;
nonbreaking hyphen &#8209;

The quote below illustrates the use of the hyphen &#45;, the en dash &#8211; and the em dash &#8212;.
In some fancy fonts the difference is more than just the width — hyphens have a distinct serif.

"Re-read the book — at least 2–3 times — then let it sink in."

"Re&#45;read the book&#8202;&#8212;&#8202;at least 2&#8211;3 times&#8202;&#8212;&#8202;then let it sink in."

Some typographers prefer to use an en dash surrounded by full spaces instead of an em dash.

full space + en dash + full space


Others prefer to insert hair spaces on either side of the em dash.

hair space + em dash + hair space


Others prefer to insert hair spaces on either side of the en dash.

hair space + en dash + hair space



Character   Notes Notation Render
slash ∽ backslash &#92; \
slash ∽ fraction &#8260;
slash ∽ division &#8725;
en dash &#8211;
em dash &#8212;
vertical &#124; a|b
vertical &#10072; ab
vertical double &#8214; ab
vertical double bold note the width &#9553; ab
vertical broken &#166; a¦b
vertical broken bold note the width &#9550; ab
horizontal broken bold &#9549;
horizontal broken light &#9548;
figure dash &#8210;
horizontal bar light &#8213;
horizontal bar medium &#9472;
horizontal bar bold &#9644;
horizontal double &#9552;
o1 overline &#8254;
o1underscore &#95; _
p1 dagger &#8224;
p1 dagger double &#8225;
vertical double &#10746;
vertical triple &#10747;
slash also known as a solidus &#47; /
tilde &#8764;
tilde reversed &#8765;
tilde &#126; ~
Tilde With Ring Above &#11803;
Tilde With Dot Above &#11806;
tilde With Dot Below &#11807;
tilde Vertical &#11823;
Swung Dash &#8275;
horizontal ellipsis &#8230;

The Correct Use of Em

An em is a unit of measurement defined as the point size of the font — 12 point type uses a 12 point em.

Some authors prefer to surround em dashes with a hair space (wider) &#8202; or a thin space (narrower) &#8201;, which are between one‑tenth to one‑sixteenth of an em.

The em dash &#8212; is used—

  • To indicate a sudden break in thought:

    I was thinking about writing a—what time is it?

    If used sparingly it suggests a definite tone, often a note of surprise or an emphasis equivalent to a mild exclamation.

  • To indicate a parenthetical statement that deserves more attention than parentheses indicate.
  • To indicate an open range, such as from a given date with no end yet:

    Alan Wood [1951—] authored this document.

  • To indicate vague dates.
  • As a stand-in for the last two digits of a four-digit year.
  • Two adjacent em dashes are used to indicate missing letters in a word.

    I just don't f— —ing care about 3.0 browsers.

  • Three adjacent em dashes are used to substitute for the author's name when a repeated series of works are presented in a bibliography.
  • Three adjacent em dashes are used to indicate an entire missing word in the text.
  • Instead of a colon or semicolon to link clauses.

    If used regularly in place of commas, colons, and semicolons, it loses all its distinctiveness and becomes a sloppy substitute for conventional punctuation.

Like the comma, the em dash is used both to enclose and to separate; and, like the comma, an enclosing dash needs a partner.
In fact, enclosing dashes are replacements for enclosing commas in order to add emphasis.

The Correct Use of En

An em is a unit of measurement defined as the point size of the font — 12 point type uses a 12 point em.
An en is one-half of an em.

The en dash is used to indicate a range of just about anything with numbers, including dates, game scores, and pages in any sort of document. The en dash indicates inclusive or continuing numbers or dates:

  • pp. 233–235
  • October 1975–January 1976

  • between 1975-1978
  • from 1975-1978

It is also used instead of the word to or a hyphen to indicate a connection between things, including geographic references (like the Mason–Dixon Line) and routes (such as the New York–Boston commuter train).

It is used to hyphenate compounds of compounds, where at least one pair is already hyphenated, as in:
Firefox is an Open–Source–based browser.

Some authors prefer an en dash to a hyphen when text is set in all capital letters, others specify the use of an en dash when referring to joint authors, as in:

The Bose–Einstein Paper

Using the horizontal ellipsis

  • An ellipsis &#8230; is most often used to indicate one or more missing words in a quotation.
  • It is also used to indicate when a thought or quotation trails off.

When it occurs at the end of a sentence, it should be treated in one of three ways, depending on usage:

  1. If the ellipsis is indicating missing words, then it is followed by a period:
    One or more missing words in the … .
  2. If it indicates missing sentences, then it should appear after the period of the preceding sentence, and with a space on either side:
    An ellipsis is used to indicate one or more missing sentences.…
  3. But if it indicates that the thought or quote is just trailing off at the end of a sentence, then only the ellipsis is used, to clarify that no words from a quotation were omitted, as would be the case if the additional period were there:
    An ellipsis is used to indicate one or more missing…


Methods for correctly inserting curly quotes in web pages are not well understood.
The problem is that many web browsers assume you are referring to the local character system, translating your curly quotes into Greek or accented Latin characters. These same browsers always get the decimal notation references right.

Don't try to ``fake it´´ with doubled-up grave accents and straight single quotes or acute accents, as most of the ``best-known newspapers" do.

Quotation Mark   Notation Render
q1 quotation &#34; "
q2 left single &#8216;
q2 right single &#8217;
q3 Left Double &#8220;
q3 Right Double &#8221;
q4 Single Low 9 &#8218;
q4 Single High Reversed 9 &#8219;
q4 Double Low 9 &#8222;
q4 Double High Reversed 9 &#8223;
q5 Double Turned Comma Ornament bold &#10077;
q5 Double Comma Ornament bold &#10078;
q7 Single Turned Comma Ornament bold &#10075;
q7 Single Comma Ornament bold &#10076;
q7 Left Pointing Double Angle &#171; «
q7 Right Pointing Double Angle &#187; »
q7 Single Left Pointing Angle &#8249;
q7 Single Right Pointing Angle Quotation Mark &#8250;

Blocked Quotes

The <q> and <blockquote> elements are designed to have quote marks automatically inserted in the appropriate locations.
HTML mandates that this occur for the <q> element, and advises authors against placing quotes manually, since this could result in double quotes.

Quoting Multiple Paragraphs

When quoting multiple paragraphs, each one begins with an opening quote. &#8220;, but only the last paragraph has a closing quote. &#8221;


A single prime is used to represent feet/minutes.
A double prime is used to indicate inches/seconds.
They look similar to curly quotes, but are much more distinct, and they never look like commas. They are set at an angle of 75° to 80° and are tapered from the top to the bottom.
Also shown are the triple prime and the three reversed versions of these characters.

Prime   Notation Render
a1 single &#8242;
double &#8243;
triple &#8244;
a1 single reversed &#8245;
double reversed &#8246;
triple reversed &#8247;


Two useful spaces in the HTML repertoire are the en space &#8194; and the em space &#8195;.
Both are visibly wider than a normal space, as mandated in the official HTML specification.

Character Notation Render
a1 word space &#32; | |
a2 no-break space &#160; | |
en space &#8194; | |
en quad &#8192; | |
em quad &#8193; | |
em space &#8195; | |
a6 three-per-em &#8196; | |
a7 four-per-em &#8197; | |
a7 six-per-em &#8198; | |
figure space &#8199; | |
a2 punctuation space &#8200; | |
a4 thin space &#8201; | |
a5 hair space &#8202; | |

Outer spaces

Sometimes in typesetting you need to provide a hint that the computer can break a long word in a particular position without any other interpretation or visible indication. This is the zero width space &#8203; . Its twin is the zero width no-break space &#65279; , which can be used to keep a word from breaking at that point.

Character Notation Render
zero width space &#8203; |​|
zero width non-joiner &#8204; |‌|
zero width joiner &#8205; |‍|
zero width no-break space &#65279; ||
left-to-right mark &#8206; |‎|
right-to-left mark &#8207; |‏|
line separator &#8232; |
paragraph separator &#8233; |
left-to-right embedding &#8234; |‪|
right-to-left embedding &#8235; |‫|
formatting &#8236; |‬|
left-to-right override &#8237; |‭|
right-to-left override &#8238; |‮|
left-to-right mark &#8206; |‎|
right-to-left mark &#8207; |‏|


Character   Notation Render
ampersand &#38; &
ampersand script &#5067;
email at &#64; @
copyright &#169; ©
care of &#8453;
cada una (each one)  &#8454;
numero sign &#8470;
telephone sign &#8481;
trademark sign &#8482;
registered design &#174; ®
audio recording copyright &#8471;
account of &#8448;
addressed to the subject &#8449;
service mark &#8480;
Hertz &#13200;
Kilohertz &#13201;
Megahertz &#13202;
Gigahertz &#13203;
Terahertz &#13204;
ohm sign &#8486;
ohm sign inverted &#8487;
estimated symbol &#8494;
centimetre &#13213;
kilometre &#13214;
square millimetre &#13215;
square centimetre &#13216;
square metre &#13217;
degree celsius &#8451;
degree fahrenheit &#8457;
prescription take &#8478;
kelvin sign &#8490;
angstrom sign &#8491;
ounce &#8485;
information source &#8505;
facsimile sign &#8507;
pi small &#8508;
pi large &#8511;
samaritan source symbol &#8527;
glottal stop &#660; ʔ