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|aaa en dash||punctuation||–||‒|
|aaa em dash||punctuation||—||—|
|slash ∽ backslash||mathematics||\||\|
|slash ∽ fraction||mathematics||⁄||⁄|
|slash ∽ division||mathematics||∕||∕|
|ba1 vertical solid||punctuation|||||a|b|
|ba3 vertical double||punctuation||‖||a‖b|
|ba4 vertical double bold||note the width||║||a║b|
|ba5 vertical broken||punctuation||¦||a¦b|
|ba6 vertical broken bold||note the width||╎||a╎b|
|bb vertical double||with line-through||⧺||⧺|
|bb vertical triple||with line-through||⧻||⧻|
|horizontal bar bold||punctuation||▬||▬|
|slash||also known as a solidus||/||/|
|tilde with ring above||⸛||⸛|
|tilde with dot above||⸞||⸞|
|tilde with dot below||⸟||⸟|
|za dagger punctuation||†||†|
|za dagger double||‡||‡|
|za dagger slanted||🗡||🗡|
An em is a unit of measurement defined as the point size of the font — 12 point type uses a 12 point em.
The em dash
— is used—
I was thinking about writing a—what time is it?
If used sparingly it suggests a definite tone, often a note of surprise or an emphasis equivalent to a mild exclamation.
Alan Wood [1951—] authored this document.
I just don't f— —ing care about 3.0 browsers.
Like the comma, the em dash is used both to enclose and to separate.
Like the comma, an enclosing dash needs a partner.
In fact, enclosing dashes are replacements for enclosing commas in order to add emphasis.
If used regularly in place of commas, colons, and semicolons, it loses all its distinctiveness and becomes a sloppy substitute for conventional punctuation.
An en is one-half of an em. The en dash is used to indicate a range of just about anything with numbers, including dates, inclusive or continuing numbers, game scores, and pages in any sort of document.
October 1975–January 1976
It is also used instead of the word to or a hyphen to indicate a connection between things, including geographic references (like the Mason–Dixon Line) and routes (such as the New York–Boston commuter train).
It is used to hyphenate compounds of compounds, where at least one pair is already hyphenated, as in:
Firefox is an Open–Source–based browser.
Some authors prefer an en dash to a hyphen when text is set in all capital letters.
THE BOSE–EINSTEIN PAPER
Others specify the use of an en dash when referring to joint authors, as in:
The Bose–Einstein Paper
… is most often used to indicate one or more missing words in a quotation.
It is also used to indicate when a thought or quotation trails off.
When it occurs at the end of a sentence, it should be treated in one of three ways, depending on usage:
on either side:
Entities, symbols & characters have four methods of reference:
Named, Decimal, Hexadecimal, and Unicode, but only the Decimal form is reliable across browsers and platforms.
To use decimal notation encoded in UTF-8 insert
as the first line in the
<head> of your document.
The name is an acronym of Unicode Transformation Format – 8-bit.
Unicode is an abbreviation of Universal Coded Character Set.
It is a Character encoding capable of encoding all characters,
1, 114, 112 in total.
It is the dominant character encoding for the world wide web, accounting for 88.9% of web pages in April 2017.