Decimal Notation in HTML


Methods for correctly inserting curly quotes in web pages are not well understood.
The problem is that many web browsers assume you are referring to the local character system, translating your curly quotes into Greek or accented Latin characters. These same browsers always get the decimal notation references right.
Don't try to ``fake it´´ with doubled-up grave accents and straight single quotes or acute accents, as most of the ``best-known newspapers" do.

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Character Notes Render
a1 quotation " "
a2 left single ‘
a2 right single ’
a3 left double “
a3 right double ”
a4 single 9 low ‚
a4 double 9 low „
a5single reversed 9 high ‛
a5 double reversed 9 high ‟
a6double turned comma ornament bold ❝
a6 double comma ornament bold ❞
a7 single turned comma ornament bold ❛
a7 single comma ornament bold ❜
a8 double left pointing angle chevron « «
a8 double right pointing angle chevron » »
a9 single left pointing angle ‹
a9 single right pointing angle ›


A single prime is used to represent feet/minutes.
A double prime is used to indicate inches/seconds.
They look similar to curly quotes, but are much more distinct, and they never look like commas. They are set at an angle of 75°to 80°and are tapered from the top to the bottom.
Also shown are the triple prime and the three reversed versions of these characters.

Prime Notation Render
a1 single ′
double ″
triple ‴
a1 single reversed ‵
double reversed ‶
triple reversed ‷
html to pseudo-element
Blocked Quotes

The <q> and <blockquote> elements are designed to have quote marks " automatically inserted in the appropriate locations.
HTML mandates that this occur for the <q> and <blockquote> element, and advises authors against placing quotes manually, since this could result in double quotes.
CSS rules can be used to overide this behavour.

Quoting Multiple Paragraphs

When quoting multiple paragraphs, each one begins with an opening quote. &#8220;, but only the last paragraph has a closing quote. &#8221;

Symbols in HTML

Entities, symbols & characters have four methods of reference:
Named, Decimal, Hexadecimal, and Unicode, but only the Decimal form is reliable across browsers and platforms.

To use decimal notation encoded in UTF-8 insert
<meta charset=“utf-8”>
as the first line in the <head> of your document.

UTF-8 Encoding

The name is an acronym of Unicode Transformation Format – 8-bit.
Unicode is an abbreviation of Universal Coded Character Set.
It is a Character encoding capable of encoding all characters,
1, 114, 112 in total.

It is the dominant character encoding for the world wide web, accounting for 88.9% of web pages in April 2017.